Before Independence

Though the British government was interested only in establishing their government, when they imposed the most draconian law on the rebellious aboriginals of the India, they came under server criticism of the progressive thinkers of the entire world. Thus, in the year 1924, as a measure of reclamation of Piramalai Kallar, the British Government launched the Kallar Reclamation Schemes under which a Piramalai Kallar Reclamation Fund was also created. The said fund was managed by a Committee of 12 members aiming at the general improvement of the community by granting loans for agricultural and other purposes and also for the general welfare of the community. The Kallar Reclamation Scheme mainly endeavoured to educate the students of the Piramalai Kallar community and at the end of 1940 itself, there were 60 schools established under Kallar Reclamation Scheme with student strength of over 3182 (Administration Report for the year 1940, Government of Madras, 1940, p.11). Further Piramalai Kallar students were granted scholarships and stipends. These schemes were implemented by Piramalai Kallar Special Officers for Madurai, supported with man powers by pooling officers from Police, Revenue, Educational and Co-operative Departments. As a result 270 special cooperative societies for the betterment of Piramalai Kallars were established at the end of the year 1946 (MLAD, September-October, 1 947, p.206) . Besides these, the following schemes were also implemented :-

i) As most of the Piramalai Kallars were asset less and land less, the government after deforesting the areas assigned the land to the Piramalai Kallars to encourage them to undertake settled cultivation. Thus, during the period between 1935 to 1939 for about 270 farmers about 648 acres of lands were assigned for cultivation (Administrative Report for the year 1939, Government of Madras, 1939, p.17 and 18). ii) As the lands were dry lands, in order to enable them for digging and deepening of wells for irrigation Takkavi Loans were granted to Piramalai Kallars.

iii) As most of the Piramalai Kallars were also homeless, the British government also allotted house site to them. iv) Two Special Revenue Inspectors were attached to the establishment for Dark-hast and loans for Kallars upto 1938 (G.O. Ms.276, Home, dated 18 January 1939).

v) Three industrial scholarships for training the students in the Industrial Schools at Madurai were implemented.

vi) The Scout Units were employed to engage the boys and girls in spinning, mat-weaving, basket making, knitting and other cottage industries.

vii) To avoid people from lapsing into illiteracy and to continue education among adults, night classes were held in the Schools.

viii) 'A Kallar Reclamation Employment Bureau' was started during February 1937. Through this Bureau 30 educated and 500 uneducated Kallars were provided with suitable jobs(Letter No.M.1892/37-CCCI of the District Magistrate, Madurai to the Home Secretary).